pedagogy of the oppressed chapter 1 pdf

Under these circumstances they cannot "consider" him sufficiently clearly to objectivize him -- to discover him "outside" themselves.

", [Footnote #20: Asentamiento refers to a production unit of the Chilean agrarian reform experiment.-Translator's note.]. This lesson and this apprenticeship must come, however, from the oppressed themselves and from those who are truly solidary with them. And those who recognize, or begin to recognize, themselves as oppressed must be among the developers of this pedagogy. -- true reflection -- leads to action. The pedagogy of the oppressed, animated by authentic, humanist (not humanitarian) generosity, presents itself as a pedagogy of humankind. It is an instrument of dehumanization. He doesn’t seem to oppose religion or spirituality, but he suggests that the fatalistic aspects of some religions help the oppressors. This is why their generosity is false.

This climate creates in the oppressor a strongly possessive consciousness -- possessive of the world and of men and women. Self-depreciation is another characteristic of the oppressed, which derives from their internalization of the opinion the oppressors hold of them. An act is oppressive only when it prevents people from being more fully human. But their perception of themselves as oppressed is impaired by their submersion in the reality of oppression. This is the case of a purely subjectivist perception by someone who forsakes objective reality and creates a false substitute. This struggle is possible only because dehumanization, although a concrete historical fact, is not a given destiny but the result of an unjust order that engenders violence in the oppressors, which in turn dehumanizes the oppressed. Sadistic love is a perverted love -- a love of death, not of life. Liberation, a human phenomenon, cannot be achieved by semihumans. In a humanizing pedagogy the method ceases to be an instrument by which the teachers (in this instance, the revolutionary leadership) can manipulate the students (in this instance, the oppressed), because it expresses the consciousness of students themselves. Just as reflection and action need to occur together in the process of liberation, the end result should be changes in both how we reflect and act on the world. Moreover, their struggle for freedom threatens not only the oppressor, but also their own oppressed comrades who are fearful of still greater repression. There would be no oppressed had there been no prior of violence to establish their subjugation. Sharing this way of life becomes an overpowering aspiration. Hence our insistence that the authentic solution of the oppressor-oppressed contradiction does not lie in a mere reversal of position, in moving from one pole to the other. For them, the new man or woman themselves become oppressors. It almost always is to the power of destiny or fate or fortune --inevitable forces -- or to a distorted view of God. The disclosure relates to can end seamers and similar apparatus, in which end closures are secured on top of successive containers by securing tools, these tools and the support means which carry the containers being rotated simultaneously by a drive common to all the working parts of the machine and derived from a level above the securing tools. They discover that without freedom they cannot exist authentically.

The revolutionary leaders of every epoch who have affirmed that the oppressed must accept the struggle for their liberation -- an obvious point -- have also thereby implicitly recognized the pedagogical aspect of this struggle.

], In this situation the oppressed do not see the "new man" as the person to be born from the resolution of this contradiction, as oppression gives way to liberation. "My students can't get enough of your charts and their results have gone through the roof." In their unrestrained eagerness to possess, the oppressors develop the conviction that it is possible for them to transform everything into objects of their purchasing power; hence their strictly materialistic concept of existence.


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