cnidarians and ctenophores similarities

[11], All cnidarians can regenerate, allowing them to recover from injury and to reproduce asexually. The nearer side is composed of tall nutritive cells that store nutrients in vacuoles (internal compartments), germ cells that produce eggs or sperm, and photocytes that produce bioluminescence. [11][26], Cnidarians feed in several ways: predation, absorbing dissolved organic chemicals, filtering food particles out of the water, obtaining nutrients from symbiotic algae within their cells, and parasitism. 1.

In: V. Gruner (ed.).

[27][44] No ctenophores have been found in fresh water.

Since the tissue layers are very thin, they provide too little power to swim against currents and just enough to control movement within currents.

Early writers combined ctenophores with cnidarians into a single phylum called Coelenterata on account of morphological similarities between the two groups. While reef-forming corals are almost entirely restricted to warm and shallow marine waters, other cnidarians can be found at great depths, in polar regions, and in freshwater.

The body plan of the animal derives from this blastula, differentiating specialized tissues and organs as it develops; this plan eventually becomes fixed, although some undergo metamorphosis at some stage in their lives. [12], All known cnidaria can reproduce asexually by various means, in addition to regenerating after being fragmented. Depending on the species, adult ctenophores range from a few millimeters to 1.5 m in size. The ciliary rosettes in the gastrodermis may help to remove wastes from the mesoglea, and may also help to adjust the animal's buoyancy by pumping water into or out of the mesoglea.[18].

Ctenophores also resemble cnidarians in having a decentralized nerve net rather than a brain. Despite their soft, gelatinous bodies, fossils thought to represent ctenophores appear in lagerstätten dating as far back as the early Cambrian, about 525 million years ago. [26] Although the eyes probably do not form images, Cubozoa can clearly distinguish the direction from which light is coming as well as negotiate around solid-colored objects.

There are four types of larvae, but all are balls of cells with an outer layer of cells whose flagellae or cilia enable the larvae to move. The next generation of the life cycle begins when the medusae are released from these gonozooids, producing free swimming only male medusae velum with gonads, a mouth, and tentacles. Reef-building corals are limited to tropical seas between 30°N and 30°S with a maximum depth of 46 m (151 ft), temperatures between 20 and 28 °C (68 and 82 °F), high salinity, and low carbon dioxide levels. [44] Members of the cydippid genus Pleurobrachia and the lobate Bolinopsis often reach high population densities at the same place and time because they specialize in different types of prey: Pleurobrachia's long tentacles mainly capture relatively strong swimmers such as adult copepods, while Bolinopsis generally feeds on smaller, weaker swimmers such as rotifers and mollusc and crustacean larvae.

Like cnidarians, the bodies of ctenophores consist of a mass of jelly, with one layer of cells on the outside and another lining the internal cavity.

Reefs are an important food source for low-technology fishing, both on the reefs themselves and in the adjacent seas. [33] The larvae's apical organ is involved in the formation of the nervous system. After their reproductive larval period is over they will not produce more gametes again until after metamorphosis. Like cnidarians, the bodies of ctenophores consist of a mass of jelly, with one layer of cells on the outside and another lining the internal cavity. Current classification according to the World Register of Marine Species: Sea anemones (Actinaria, part of Hexacorallia), Coral Acropora muricata (Scleractinia, part of Hexacorallia), Sea fan Gorgonia ventalina (Alcyonacea, part of Octocorallia), Siphonophore Physalia physalis (Hydrozoa), Jellyfish Phyllorhiza punctata (Scyphozoa), Stalked jelly Haliclystus antarcticus (Staurozoa), Many cnidarians are limited to shallow waters because they depend on endosymbiotic algae for much of their nutrients. [26] Hence most attention has until recently concentrated on three coastal genera – Pleurobrachia, Beroe and Mnemiopsis. [25], This structure ensures that the musculature is excited rapidly and simultaneously, and can be directly stimulated from any point on the body, and it also is better able to recover after injury. Instead, these species rely on their medusae to extend their ranges. Ctenophores are distinguished from all other animals by having colloblasts, which are sticky and adhere to prey, although a few ctenophore species lack them. The traditional classification divides ctenophores into two classes, those with tentacles (Tentaculata) and those without (Nuda). All the cells have a single nucleus and membrane. [105][98], Divergence times estimated from molecular data indicated approximately how many million years ago (Mya) the major clades diversified: 350 Mya for Cydippida relative to other Ctenophora, and 260 Mya for Platyctenida relative to Beroida and Lobata.[98].


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